Volume 14 Issue 5

Parasite roundup for 2023

Increasing numbers of imported rescue cats and dogs have been seen over the past few years with an associated risk of exotic pathogens entering the UK. This article provides an update on the parasitic infections seen in UK cats and dogs, as a result of changes in climate, habitat and movement of pets.

Cooperative care for companion dogs: emotional health and wellness

Traditionally, humans treated their companion dogs with absolute authority. Furthermore, much of human behaviour towards dogs is cloaked in myths and driven by human-centric labels such as ‘good,’ ‘bad,’ ‘stubborn’ or ‘friendly’ to describe behaviours, emotions, traits or personalities. This has meant that companion dogs have little, if any, autonomy or choice in what happens to them, and this can be traumatic and emotionally damaging. However, providing dogs with the opportunity to make choices when and where it is safe and appropriate to do so may improve their optimism and is part of a clear two-way system of communication between humans and dogs. This translates to reduced stress and enhanced positive welfare that includes their emotional wellness. Cooperative care is a training protocol that provides some measure of predictability and clarity. It removes ambiguity and thus reduces stress from handling. Because it allows the animal to choose to participate or not, it builds trust and grants for some degree of bodily autonomy. The practical applications have additional effects on overall wellness and also reduce the chances of aggressive behaviours that may lead to human injury and veterinary care can be improved, with benefits to the dog, staff and clients.

Bypassing their way into your heart: considerations for the cardiothoracic patient

This article will outline the veterinary nursing considerations involved with the postoperative cardiothoracic patient, the complications that can occur during this period and those that are associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. It will introduce the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and what implications this modality has and review the general care and monitoring that patients receive in the intensive care unit.

Chronic inflammatory enteropathy: faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice

Chronic inflammatory enteropathy is an umbrella term that encompasses various inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In the absence of identifiable underlying infectious, neoplastic or metabolic causes, chronic or recurrent signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological evidence of mucosal inflammation are the hallmarks of chronic inflammatory enteropathy. Subgroups of chronic inflammatory enteropathy are retrospectively categorised as food-responsive, immunosuppression-responsive, small intestinal dysbiosis or non-responsive based on the selective response to therapeutic trials. Small intestinal dysbiosis is an overarching term used to describe derangement of the small intestinal microbiota caused by an abnormal proliferation of bacteria and/or change in bacterial species present in the small intestinal lumen. The pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory enteropathy remains elusive, although current hypotheses emphasise the role of adverse immune responses to dietary and microbial antigens thought to arise from immune system dysregulation, genetic susceptibility and intestinal dysbiosis. The gastrointestinal tract of dogs is colonised by a vast population of microorganisms, known as the intestinal microbiota, which is composed of viruses, fungi, bacteria and protozoa. Clinical use of faecal microbiota transplantation in promoting normobiosis has been gaining popularity within the field of canine gastroenterology. This modifies the intestinal bacterial microbiota and has shown promise as an adjunctive treatment of enteric disease, associated with a faster resolution of diarrhoea and enhanced clinical recovery.

Capnography for the veterinary nurse

According to reports, small animal anaesthesia appears to be increasing in safety. However, greater patient care during the peri-anaesthetic period would further reduce fatalities. While there is no direct evidence to prove that the use of capnography can reduce the risk of mortality, it has been shown to prevent morbidities and has allowed for the early detection of complications before significant physiological side effects are seen. Capnography is becoming more commonplace in veterinary practice; however, it is reported that not all registered veterinary nurses feel comfortable with its use. This article provides detailed information on capnography so that registered veterinary nurses will be more knowledgeable and confident in using this method to detect and correct any issues that arise.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes in a UK veterinary hospital: pilot study

This retrospective study aimed to investigate cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcomes in a UK veterinary hospital and compare these to values communicated in literature from other countries. Five years' worth of patient records, kept by one hospital, were examined over a one-month period. Clinical notes were reviewed to obtain key data and animals with incomplete data sets were not included. Results were statistically analysed. A sample of 114 records were reviewed; 89 canines, 25 felines. Initially, 21.9% of patients were revived following cardiopulmonary arrest with 6.1% of patients surviving to discharge. Location of resuscitation (P=0.003), type of compression used (open or closed) (P=0.005), and whether sustained return of spontaneous circulation was achieved (P=0.001) were variables of significance in relation to cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome. Overall, the study revealed cardiopulmonary resuscitation survival to discharge fell in line with statistics recorded in similar studies. Prospective studies would aid clinical auditing and robust use of recording sheets.

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