In this issue, there is an interesting article on sustainability; a concept which has been enjoying a renaissance of sorts in recent years as we learn more about ways to reduce our environmental impact and ensure that future generations will not have to deal with enduring problems as a result of our carelessness.
With the proposed changes to the Pet Travel Scheme (PETS) looming over us, ESCCAP UK are voicing their concern about the upcoming changes to pet travel regulations and the growing parasitological issues facing UK pets.
Central venous pressure (CVP) is an estimate of the blood pressure in the right atrium. CVP refects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump the blood into the arterial system. CVP is directly proportional to the volume of blood in the anterior vena cava and venous tone. This pressure is decreased by hypovolaemia or venodilation and is increased by fluid therapy or venoconstriction. It can be used to guide fluid therapy administration in critically ill patients, or in patients with cardiac disease to help prevent volume overload.
Influenza viruses are significant pathogens of mammals and birds but are rarely mentioned as important pathogens in dogs. Nevertheless, several viral episodes have occurred in past decade which are changing the comprehension of the influenza virus’ role in dogs. Veterinary professionals can play an important role in preventing unreasonable fears that may arise among personnel and owners, and in improving understanding as to when and where influenza infection is possible.
Sustainability is now a part of everyday life. The word is everywhere, but what does it mean and how can educators go about educating sustainable practitioners of veterinary nursing and of life. It is first important to understand what sustainability is, how everything is cyclical and how big an impact prople are really having and then look at how individuals and small groups of students can collectively make a big difference. Is plastic really worse than paper, how can people make good choices, what are the other factors that need to be considered? It is not just the environment that is affected, but economics, society and cultures too. Educators must walk to talk and actively show that sustainability is important and everyone can make a difference.
The appropriate provision of analgesia is essential in all species. Pain causes intensification of the stress response, activates the sympathetic nervous system, affects food intake and metabolism, modifies behaviour and can adversely affect the immune response. If excessive pain is improperly managed, the sequelae can contribute to morbidity and mortality, particularly in already debilitated patients. In order to effectively manage pain, it is important to be able to recognize pain, utilize a multimodal approach and select appropriate analgesic drugs. Detection of pain, particularly chronic pain, can be difficult in cats and there are relatively few analgesic products licensed for long-term use in this species. Provision of effective analgesia in the geriatric cat can be challenging. This review aims to summarize how to first recognize the presence of pain in older cats and consider the pharmacological effects of ageing, and second how to adopt a multifaceted approach using the different classes of analgesics available.
The triage examination is a rapid assessment of the major organ systems in patients presenting emergently to the veterinarian. Major organ systems that are assessed as part of the primary survey are the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurologic, and urogenital systems. Certain abnormalities in these systems merit immediate further examination for assessment and stabilization. Part 1 of this series discussed common findings on triage of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in veterinary patients. Part 2 will focus on guidelines for triage of the neurologic and urogenital system, as well as other ailments that do not ft into these categories, but which merit immediate veterinary attention. The mentation, gait, and cranial nerves are evaluated to determine neurologic status, and abdominal palpation alerts the examiner to the possibility of urinary obstruction. A thorough primary triage examination can allow the stratification of emergency room patients and allow those in most need to receive rapid, directed care.
Aggressive behaviour in animals can have serious consequences, with a number of people hospitalized by dogs each year. Many animals in the veterinary clinic feel fear and this can trigger aggressive behaviour, which is often aimed at veterinary professionals. It is useful to be able to read the signals given out by animals to identify whether aggression is likely, however, it should be remembered that animals can switch states very quickly, so that an animal appearing relaxed one minute may be aggressive the next.Learning useful handling techniques can help in the safe management of animals in practice. In addition, long-term plans can be put in place to help animals with a history of aggressive behaviour. Restraint should be kept to a minimum, however, it is essential that both patients, owners and staff are kept safe and secure at all times.
Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) is the cessation of spontaneous ventilation and systemic perfusion, which, if not rapidly detected and treated, leads to hypoxia and death. Cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) is a technique employed to reverse CPA. A review of veterinary and human literature revealed that producing evidence-based guidelines for veterinary CPCR is difficult due to the limited number of clinical veterinary studies. Many studies have been performed in human medicine and healthy animal models, however induced ventricular fibrillation does not represent clinically relevant situations. Despite this, evidence-based chest compression and ventilation rates for small animals can be recommended. Over-ventilation and inadequate chest compressions commonly occur during CPCR. Education of staff likely to be involved in CPCR and monitoring efficacy of CPCR during CPA is important to optimize the likelihood of success.