Volume 7 Issue 5

One Health

Our health as a species is affected on a daily basis by the health of animals. We live alongside them in our homes, we farm them, help them give birth, hunt them, butcher them, and eat them. We play with them, care for them, and treat their injuries and illnesses. To say we don't live intimately with animals would be a lie. We are closely connected with animals, we inhale their air, our skin touches their blood and sweat, and we consume their flesh and milk. We are one with animals, and our health is one with them.

How to run a successful nurse clinic

The veterinary market in today's world is forever evolving, putting more pressure on the veterinary team and practice. Clients are expecting more and more from the veterinary team in terms of diagnosis and treatment, meaning performing, running and delivering test results the same day. The veterinary nurse's role is becoming more diverse as treatments become more sophisticated, while still complementing the everyday workings of the veterinary practice. The fundamental principle of running a successful nursing clinic is to nurture the client–practice relationship, provide education, and generate profit. The use of the adapted Cambridge-Calgary model can also assist veterinary nurses in the running of successful nursing clinics.

Leishmaniosis in dogs and cats

Leishmania are vector-borne protozoan parasites within the group known as the Kinetoplastids. Infection with these parasites can result in a range of clinical diseases dependent upon the infecting species. Leishmania infantum is the main species causing leishmaniosis in dogs and cats, as well as visceral and cutaneous forms of leishmaniosis in humans. Dogs are the main reservoir, but cats and other potential vertebrate reservoirs have been also reported. Sandflies are the main vector, but non-vectorial transmission (e.g. venereal, transplacental) is possible. Despite the lack of a gold-standard diagnostic test diagnosis of leishmaniosis is achieved mainly based on clinical signs, skin histopathology, serological detection of specific immune responses against Leishmania and molecular detection of the parasite DNA in tissues by using polymerase chain reaction. Correct and early diagnosis is essential for timely institution of treatment and for minimising the transmission of Leishmania from infected animals to vectors. Meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol are the most widely used anti-leishmanial drugs. Vaccination is also available, but only for dogs. The advent of effective insecticide-based preparations, impregnated collars or topical (‘spot-on’) formulations, and insights into the appropriate management of leishmaniosis lends a hopeful outlook for the future. This article discusses biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of leishmaniosis in dogs and cats, and explains the importance of connecting clinical and research communities in a ‘One Health’ approach for effective surveillance and control of this disease.

Evidence surrounding the feeding of natural/raw diets to dogs and cats

Many pet owners seek advice from veterinary nurses and technicians on all aspects of nutrition from how to feed to what to feed; ranging from commercial diets to feeding raw diets, natural diets and home-cooked/prepared foods. Good sound evidence-based knowledge should be utilised in order to convey the advice given on all aspects of nutrition.

Chicken nutrition

The growing popularity of hen keeping has resulted in an ever growing hen feed industry. The days of backyard hens living off a handful of grain or kitchen scraps have long gone and the responsible chicken keeper is now faced with a bewildering array of different feeds and often no idea which to choose.

Pain recognition in reptiles and investigation of associated behavioural signs

Background:There is minimal research into reptile pain management and analgesic protocols, and current opinions surrounding this topic are outdated; the last significant study was carried out by Read in 2004. The aim of this current study was to consider the current ideas and highlight any advancements in reptile analgesia.Objective:To investigate current ideas within analgesia in reptiles, with focus on the creation of a behavioural ethogram for clinical reference.Methods:A survey was created using an online platform and distributed to experts in the field of reptile pain management (veterinarians and veterinary nurses) as well as experienced animal carers (herpetoculturists and pet owners).Results:A chi-square test revealed no statistical significance in behavioural signs recognised between veterinary professionals and animal carers. Continuity existed between the behavioural signs recognised by both expert groups.Conclusion:A lack of confidence was identified when assessing pain in reptiles. The top three behavioural signs of pain in the three subgroups were statistically agreed on across both groups of expert individuals, indicating a good basis for a behavioural ethogram.

A cancer diagnosis — what now?

Few words in the English language evoke such depth and variety of emotion as the word cancer (Lagoni et al, 1994). Faced with a spectrum of potential owner reactions, veterinary personnel must provide accurate medical information and appropriate emotional support. For many clients, such a diagnosis in their treasured companion implies pain, discomfort and impending loss of life (Ciekot, 1995). The role of veterinary personnel in a cancer diagnosis includes that of health care provider, teacher and source of emotional support. This article will outline the role of personnel from presentation of the diagnosis and discussion of treatment options, to providing support for the owner and extended family of the pet throughout the cancer journey.

Ischaemia and reperfusion injury: when cells almost die

Ischaemia/reperfusion injury is a syndrome in which the body or part of the body suffers a decrease in oxygen delivery. As a result, ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs and is a complex cascade of events resulting in devastating effects to the body, sometimes including death.

Keep ticking away at parasite control

Parasitology is featuring more and more in our day to day lives, both for veterinary professionals and for pet owners. For those of us who work in the field, this is a major breakthrough! Gone are the days when the terms ‘worms’, ‘ticks’ and ‘fleas’ would instigate a look of confusion.

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