Referring for advanced limb imaging: what, when and how?

Pathology associated with the distal limb is a common cause of forelimb lameness and, less frequently, hindlimb lameness. The principal causes of forelimb lameness include osseous/articular abnormalities, and soft tissue injuries, including those affecting the hoof capsule.

Diet associated canine dilated cardiomyopathy

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common cause of heart failure in the dog. Primary DCM is often a disease of exclusion, but inherited genetic breed dispositions have been reported. Secondary causes of DCM include toxins, nutritional deficiency, systemic and infectious disease. The number of dogs diagnosed with DCM has increased significantly in the last 20 years, and has been linked to the rise in popularity of boutique, exotic and grain-free, legume-rich diets. Veterinary cardiologists raised...

Know your NSAIDs

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are regularly used in veterinary medicine to provide analgesia and to reduce inflammation associated with acute pain (e.g. surgical procedures) and in cases of chronic pain (e.g. osteoarthritis). This article discusses their pharmacology, different considerations with their use and the most commonly available drugs in small animal practice.

Moisture matters: a focus on feline hydration

Water intake in cats is important both in health and disease. While healthy cats with free access to water are adept at maintaining a good water balance, cats can be susceptible to dehydration if the homeostatic mechanisms controlling hydration are disrupted. There are a number of situations in which promoting water intake can be beneficial, particularly in cats with increased water losses (for example, chronic kidney disease; diabetes mellitus; cases of vomiting or diarrhoea), decreased intake...

Poisons affecting the skin

All homes contain substances capable of causing serious injury if they come into contact with the skin. These substances include detergents, acids and alkalis found in many cleaning products, and petroleum distillates such as white spirit and petrol. Asphalt used in road surfacing can also cause local effects, particularly if it is still hot when contact occurs. The risk of effects on the skin from these chemicals is increased if decontamination in delayed. The method of decontamination will...

A retrospective survey evaluating the prescribing tendencies of UK veterinary surgeons, relating to the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in canine angiostrongylosis

Background: In addition to anti-parasitic therapy, appropriate supportive care is vital for the successful treatment of canine angiostrongylosis. Aim: This study sought to determine the prevalence and reasons for the use of corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), by veterinarians, as a supportive treatment for canine angiostrongylosis. Specifically, the study investigated the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the management of inflammation, anaphylaxis and...

Syringomyelia and Chiari-like malformation

Syringomyelia is a heritable condition caused by fluid-filled cavities in the spinal cord as a result of the abnormal flow of cerebrospinal fluid. This results in a number of debilitating clinical signs, including neck pain (which often manifests as scratching or ‘phantom scratching’, head shy behaviour and vocalisation) and neurological deficits. Management may be conservative or surgical but, in most cases, the condition is progressive, regardless of the treatment option pursued.

Evaluation of the nursing care plan in a thyroidectomy surgical case

Veterinary nurses work closely with their patients to deliver a high quality of care. This care is implemented using nursing care plans (NCPs). This article aims to evaluate the use of a nursing care plan and its value in practice as well as enhancing nurses' understanding of them. Within this article the author will be discussing the actual and potential problems and implementing the nursing interventions in a nursing care plan pre, post surgery and at discharge in a thyroidectomy case....

Emergency cardiac pharmacology for nurses

Cardiac emergencies are a relatively common occurrence in emergency practice, and cardiac drugs are essential in the management of these patients. Knowledge and understanding of the pharmacology of these drugs is important for the veterinary nurse, so that they can support the veterinary surgeon and give the best care to their patient, by being prepared and organised. Each medication needs to be carefully considered by the veterinary surgeon before use and each patient assessed accordingly....

How to nurse wildlife patients

This article provides a basic outline of nursing of wildlife patients, from initial contact and triage through to kennelling and rehabilitation. Most wildlife presentations are debilitated or injured and require immediate veterinary attention and nursing care.

Nursing the uroabdomen patient

Uroabdomen, the presence of urine in the abdominal cavity, commonly occurs in dogs and cats, particularly following a trauma. Initial stabilisation of the patient is essential to treat the multisystemic effects of electrolyte and metabolic derangements, including hyperkalaemia, azotaemia and metabolic acidosis. Diagnosis is confirmed by comparing laboratory analysis of abdominal fluid and serum. Urinary diversion is required, often via placement of a urinary catheter, to prevent continuing urine...

Canine developmental elbow disease part 2: surgical and non-surgical management

Developmental elbow disease is the term encompassing several abnormalities of the elbow joint, including fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP), osteochondrosis of the humerus (OC), ununited anconeal process (UAP), cartilage injuries and incongruity of the elbow joint. These disorders are associated with varying degrees of joint instability, inflammation, and loose fragments within the joint, which result in lameness and osteoarthrosis. Treatment should ideally involve correcting the...

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