Pain scoring systems in the canine and feline patient
It is important that veterinary professionals are able to recognise and assess pain in patients under their care. Veterinary patients cannot verbalise, or self-report on the amount of pain they are experiencing, so it is the responsibility of the professionals caring for them to be able to recognise the signs of pain, which can differ greatly between species. Once the veterinary professional has recognised the signs of pain during assessment they can then determine and appreciate the type or types of pain the patient is suffering, for example neuropathic, acute and chronic, and create an individual analgesic treatment plan. The assessment of pain in animals is for the most part based on the recognition of behavioural changes in response to pain, which cannot only vary between species but also between individuals within that species. Pain scoring systems can be utilised to quantify pain; putting a number on the level of pain for the purpose of determining whether pain exists, whether analgesia is sufficient, and in order to monitor patient progress in terms of pain management. These take into account the behavioural changes and responses of the patient and guide the user towards the calculation of a score. This article explores some of the key concepts relating to the recognition and quantification of pain, and the reliability and validity of pain scores, before considering the different pain scoring systems available for use in veterinary practice and their relative merits.
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