Clinical

Triage: is it safe to wait?

Clients will typically call their veterinary clinic if they are concerned their pet has become unwell or injured. Triaging over the telephone determines if the pet requires immediate attention or if...

Anatomical evaluation of brachycephalism in cats and rabbits

Brachycephalic animals can be identified by their distinctive skull shape with a high cephalic index. Cat breeds affected by extreme brachycephaly include Exotic Shorthairs, Himalayans and Persians....

The importance of the team in small animal CPR

The leader is one of the most influential CPR team factors. Leaders require effective delegation, observation and time management skills (Haskey, 2016). Leaders allocate roles to the team, ensuring...

Ear base swellings in rabbits

Unlike canine and feline patients, rabbits do not have a distinct vertical or horizontal ear canal. The external ear possesses cartilaginous plates and a blind-ending diverticulum which is separated...

Nutrition and chronic renal failure

Initially, renal failure was diagnosed with serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. However, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to detect chronic renal failure...

Zoonotic hookworms and roundworms affecting dogs and cats in Europe

Roundworms reside within the lumen of the small intestine, feeding on nutrients within it. The clinical picture in infected animals depend on different factors related to the host (eg age) or to the...

Anaesthesia in exotics part 1: small mammals

It is important to carry out temperature control measures into the recovery period, with particular care being taken in species that may overheat quickly, such as chinchillas, or those that may lose...

Post-operative nursing of a feline patient after hypophysectomy surgery

The patient (Figure 1) was a 6-year-old male neutered Domestic Short Hair feline that presented to the referral centre with diabetes mellitus. With subsequent testing, he was diagnosed with a...

Managing passive regurgitation in patients under general anaesthesia

In orthopaedic practice, an increase in incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux reported in patients undergoing surgery has been recognised. Possible causes include longer anaesthesia duration, patient...

Nursing a patient with feline urethral obstruction

Feline urethral obstruction is a potentially life-threatening condition. The maintenance and monitoring of the patient's electrolyte levels and fluid balance, and urinary catheter management, as well...

Myasthenia gravis and the role of the veterinary nurse

The antibody titre test is a blood test to detect the presence of autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptors. These antibodies are thought to be present in around 98% of dogs with myasthenia...

Fluid therapy for emergent and critical cases: hypovolaemia vs dehydration

King and Boag (2018) stated that the average patient's body weight is made up of the weight of dry matter (40%), such as tissues and bones, and also fluid (60%). Fluid can then be further subdivided...