Gingivostomatitis: an update

27 September 2013
13 mins read
Volume 4 · Issue 7


Chronic gingivostomatitis is a relatively common problem in veterinary patients and can be very debilitating, significantly impacting on their daily lives. The term gingivostomatitis is more of a descriptive term than a diagnostic one and the condition has also been termed ‘lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis stomatitis’, which became apparent components of the disease histopathologically. This article aims to outline the aetiology and pathogenesis of the condition and discuss the presentation and findings on clinical examination of patients with chronic gingivostomatitis, while considering the potential treatment options and nursing care requirements to ensure optimal resolution.

Chronic gingivostomatitis (CGS), or recurrent oral ulceration (ROU), is identified in veterinary patients frequently, and histopathological examination of often severely inflamed tissues characterises the reactive cells that are within the oral mucosa (Lyon, 2005); this is obvious on conscious oral examination in these patients where proliferative ulceration and marker hyperaemia is evident. It has also been referred to as lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis stomatitis (LPGS) (Johnston 1998), lympho-plasmacytic stomatitis (LPS), plasmacytic stomatitis (PS), chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis (CUPS) (Lyon, 2005) and chronic mucositis (CM) (Gengler, 2013). Gorrel (2011) highlighted that CGS can occur in canine patients, but is most frequently seen in feline patients, hence the label feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS). A study by Healey et al (2007) reported a prevalence of 0.7% in a population of feline patients that visited first-opinion small animal veterinary practices, and Mihaljevic (2008) discussed that juvenile and adult clinical forms of this disease are often seen in purebred cats, domestic short hairs, Maine Coons and Siamese breeds. Due to this increased prevalence in felines this article will focus on FCGS.

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