Clinical

Nursing the uroabdomen patient

A uroabdomen may occur following blunt trauma to the abdomen or pelvis, such as a road traffic accident (RTA). Trauma to any part of the urinary system can result in a rupture, with damage to the...

Emergency cardiac pharmacology for nurses

The heart contains four chambers, the left and right atria and left and right ventricles. These four chambers receive and send blood through several vessels and valves to keep the body perfused with...

Flea infestation: a snapshot on the common products and the reasons for treatment failure

Fleas are laterally flattened, dark brown insects around 2–5 mm in size. Although fleas are wingless (Figure 1), they are highly mobile because of their strong hind legs adapted for jumping (Wright...

Clinical assessment of muscle condition in cats

Muscle tissue is constantly undergoing both protein synthesis and protein breakdown, in both health and disease states. The balance between synthesis and breakdown processes determines whether...

Canine developmental elbow disease part 1: aetiopathogenesis and diagnosis

The most common age for onset of clinical signs of developmental elbow disease is between 6 to 10 months of age, however some dogs only present as middle aged or older adults when they have advanced...

ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome

In ARDS inflammation is triggered by either a primary condition, such as septic shock or pancreatitis, or by a severe pulmonary insult which could include aspiration pneumonia, pulmonary contusions,...

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: an extended patient care report

On presentation, the patient was triaged to gauge his respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological status. The vital parameters were as follows:.

Thoracic trauma in small animals: road traffic accidents

Triage is the process of categorising and prioritising patients based on their severity of condition. Nurses should be confident in their abilities to triage patients efficiently and categorise...

The highs and lows of electrolytes part 2: calcium, phosphate and magnesium

Calcium is crucial for skeletal bone support and numerous intra- and extracellular functions. It is involved in blood coagulation, excitation of neurons, secretion of hormones, enzyme activity and...

Assisted feeding techniques in hospitalised felines

Domestic felines require specific dietary components in comparison to domestic canines. Felines are obligate carnivores; a term which defines their inability to synthesise vitamin A, arachidonic acid...

How to blood sample

Blood samples are commonly obtained from the jugular, cephalic or lateral saphenous veins; the medial saphenous vein can also be used, and in general the use of the jugular vein is recommended. The...

Pharmacology of opioids and application to practice

Pain is an unpleasant experience providing sensory and emotional components to actual or potential tissue damage (McKune et al, 2015)..